ls ( -a and -A options)

UNIX Command

$ls -a
.  ..  a1.txt  a2.txt
$ls -A
a1.txt	a2.txt
$ls
a1.txt	a2.txt
$


UNIX Explanation

 -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

 -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

computer science related Theory Drop

In  computing, a  hidden directory  or hidden  file is  a directory
(folder)  or file  which file  system utilities  do not  display by
default.  They are commonly  used for  storing user  preferences or
preserving  the  state of  a  utility  and  are frequently  created
implicitly by using various utilities. Usually the intent is to not
"clutter" the display of the contents of a directory with files the
user did not create.

source :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidden_file_and_hidden_directory

CONNECTION

current directory indicated by . and previous directory
indicated by .. are both hidden

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